Kyrgyzstan

( /ˈkɜrɡɨstæn/ kur-gi-stan;[6] Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан [qɯrʁɯzstɑ́n]; Russian: Кыргызстан [kᵻrɡᵻsˈtan]), officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the world’s six independent Turkic states (along with Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan). Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and People’s Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek.

“Kyrgyz”, is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for “forty”, in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghers. Literally it means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghers dominated much of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, and parts of Russia and China.[7]

By extension, Kyrgyz is also thought to mean “unconquerable” or “undefeatable”.

The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun’s center depicts the wooden crown of a yurt – a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia.

According to David C. King, “Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan”[8]

as early as by the 7th century, Turkic traders introduced Islam to central asia via making bussiness issue with arabic people, including what is now Kyrgyzstan, and .[9] The Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after, under the leadership of Jordan the Superior, defeating the Uyghur Khanate in 840 A.D.[9] Then the Kyrgyz quickly moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years.

In the twelfth century, however, the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz were conquered by Genghis Khan in 1207.

Chinese and Muslim sources of the 7th–12th centuries AD describe the early Kyrgyz as red-haired with white skin and blue eyes, features that were interpreted as suggestive of Slavic origins[citation needed].[10][11] The descent of the Kyrgyz from the autochthonous Siberian population is confirmed on the other hand by the recent genetic studies.[12] Because of the processes of migration, conquest, intermarriage, and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples that now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins, often stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they speak closely related languages.[13][14]

Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for travelers from the Far East to Europe. Many historians believe that the lake was the point of origin for the Black Death that plagued Europe and Asia during the early and mid-14th century.[15]

Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongol Oirats, in the mid-18th century by the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand.[16]

[edit] Russian eraIn the late nineteenth century, the majority part of what is today Kyrgyzstan was ceded to Russia through two treaties between China (then Qing Dynasty) and Russia. The territory, then known in Russian as “Kirgizia”, was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1876. The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts against Tsarist authority, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to move to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan.

In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz later to migrate to China.[17] Since many ethnic groups in the region were (and still are) split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better; this might mean better rains for pasture or better government during oppression.

Kyrgyz Republic

Кыргыз Республикасы
Kırgız Respublikası
Кыргызская Республика
Kyrgyzskaya Respublika

Flag Emblem

Anthem: National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic

Capital
(and largest city) Bishkek
42°52′N 74°36′E / 42.867°N 74.6°E / 42.867; 74.6
Official language(s) Kyrgyz (State)
Russian (Official)[1]
Ethnic groups 68.9% Kyrgyz
14.4% Uzbek
9.1% Russian
7.6% others
Demonym Kyrgyz
Kyrgyzstani[2]
Government Parliamentary republic
- President Roza Otunbayeva
- Prime Minister Almazbek Atambayev
- Speaker of Parliament Akhmatbek Keldibekov
Independence from the Soviet Union
- Established 14 October 1924
- Kirghiz SSR 5 December 1936
- Declared 31 August 1991
- Completed 25 December 1991
Area
- Total 199,900 km2 (86th)
77,181 sq mi
- Water (%) 3.6
Population
- 2009 estimate 5,482,000[3] (110th)
- 1999 census 4,896,100
- Density 27.4/km2 (176th)
71/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
- Total $12.016 billion[4]
- Per capita $2,248[4]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
- Total $4.615 billion[4]
- Per capita $863[4]
Gini (2003) 30.3 (medium)
HDI (2010) 0.598[5] (medium) (109th)
Currency Som (KGS)
Time zone KGT (UTC+6)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code KG
Internet TLD .kg
Calling code 996

Soviet era
Bishkek
Displays in the former Lenin Museum (now part of the National Museum) celebrated Kyrgyzstan’s membership in the Soviet UnionSoviet power was initially established in the region in 1919, and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR (the term Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz). On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a full republic of the Soviet Union.

During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural, educational and social life. Literacy was greatly improved, and a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development also was notable. Many aspects of Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite the suppression of nationalist activity under Joseph Stalin, and, therefore, tensions with the all-Union authorities were constant.

The early years of glasnost had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. However, the Republic’s press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny Kirghizstan, by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with the acute housing crisis were permitted to function.

In 1989 protests flared up against the discriminatory policy of the Soviet government directed at pushing ethnic Kyrgyz inhabitants out of major cities, which could then be occupied by new settlers from Russia and the other Soviet republics.[citation needed]

According to the last Soviet census in 1989, ethnic Kyrgyz made up only 22% of the residents of the northern city of Frunze (now Bishkek), while more than 60% were Russians, Ukrainians, and people from other Slavic nations (only 36 percent of Bishkek residents surveyed said Russian was their first language).[18]

In June 1990, ethnic tensions between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in Osh Oblast (southern Kyrgyzstan), where Uzbeks form a majority of the population.[19] Attempts to appropriate Uzbek collective farms for housing development triggered the Osh Riots. A state of emergency and curfew were introduced[20] and Askar Akayev, the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers (in northern Kyrgyzstan), was elected President in October of that same year.

By then, the Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in Parliament. In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic’s name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. (In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic.) The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its pre-revolutionary name of Bishkek.

Despite these political moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the Soviet Union. In a referendum on the preservation of the Soviet Union in March 1991, 88.7% of the voters approved the proposal to retain the Soviet Union as a “renewed federation.” Nevertheless, secessionist forces pushed Kyrgyzstan’s independence through in August of that same year.

On 19 August 1991, when the State Emergency Committee assumed power in Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire bureau and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence from the Soviet Union on 31 August 1991 as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.

[edit] IndependenceIn October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected president of the new independent Republic by direct ballot, receiving 95% of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other Republics that same month, he signed the Treaty of the New Economic Community. Finally, on 21 December 1991, Kyrgyzstan joined with the other four Central Asian Republics to formally enter the new Commonwealth of Independent States. Kyrgyzstan gained full independence a few days later on 25 December 1991. The following day, 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. In 1992, Kyrgyzstan joined the UN and the OSCE.

On 5 May 1993, the Republic of Kyrgyzstan was renamed the Kyrgyz Republic.

Political stability appeared to be elusive, however, as various groups and factions allegedly linked to organized crime jockeyed for power. Three of the 75 members of Parliament elected in March 2005 were assassinated, and another member was assassinated on 10 May 2006 shortly after winning his murdered brother’s seat in a by-election. All four are reputed to have been directly involved in major illegal business ventures.

Ethnolinguistic map of Central Asia Current concerns [when?] in Kyrgyzstan include privatisation of state-owned enterprises, expansion of Western influence, inter-ethnic relations and terrorism.

On 6 April 2010, civil unrest broke out in the town of Talas, spreading to the capital Bishkek by the following day. Protesters attacked President Kurmanbek Bakiyev’s offices, as well as state-run radio and television stations. As a result, Bakiyev declared a state of emergency. Reports say that at least 80 people died as a result of clashes with police. A transition government, led by former foreign minister Roza Otunbayeva, by 8 April 2010 had taken control of state media and government facilities in the capital, but Bakiyev had not resigned from office.

President Kurmanbek Bakiyev returned to his home in Jalal-Abad and stated his terms of resignation at a 13 April 2010 press conference. On 15 April 2010, Bakiyev left the country and flew to neighboring Kazakhstan, along with his wife and two children. The country’s provisional leaders announced that Bakiyev signed a formal letter of resignation prior to his departure

Comments are closed